Opel Astra, Zafira
since 1998 of release
Repair and car operation
+ Opel Astra and Zafira Cars
- Operation manual
Additional electronic devices
Illumination of salon
Elements of systems of safety of the car
+ Routine maintenance
+ Systems of cooling, heating
+ Power supply system and release
+ engine Electric equipment
+ Manual transmission
+ Automatic transmission
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Onboard electric equipment
Running in of the new car
To provide reliability and durability of the car in operation, throughout the first 600 km of run it is necessary to adhere to the following rules:
After repair or engine replacement, and also after replacement of brake shoes it is necessary to observe similar restrictions and recommendations.
Type of applied fuel
Filling of a fuel tank
The refueling mouth of a fuel tank is located on the left side of the car therefore to approach on a toplivorazdatochny column at filling station follows the left board.
See. Access, protection.
Control of level of engine oil
The description of procedure of check of level of oil is provided in Head Routine maintenance.
Control of level of cooling liquid of the engine
The description of procedure of check of level of cooling liquid is provided in Head Routine maintenance.
Transportation of goods in the car
The car is equipped with several capacities intended for placement of transported subjects.
The ware offices located in salon of the car are intended for placement of small subjects. Their number treat the main ware box in dashboards, door pockets and the pockets located in backs of seats, and also the pockets built in the dashboard.
Large-sized subjects should be placed in a luggage compartment of the car. Transportation of lengthy subjects becomes possible thanks to a harmonious design of backs of a back seat (see. Salon equipment).
It is necessary to remember, however, that the wrong transportation of cargoes can negatively affect controllability and stability of the car and, therefore, to reduce safety. Before transporting this or that cargo in the car, familiarize with information provided below.
Rules of transportation of goods
Maximum loading capacity of the car
In transit cargoes in the car it is necessary to consider that the full mass of the car should not exceed the maximum admissible value. The full mass of the car includes: the equipped mass of the car, mass of the driver and passengers, mass of the hook-on device established on the car, and also mass of the trailer falling on it. At any options of loading of the car of load of axes also should not exceed limiting admissible values. Information on the maximum admissible values of full weight and axial loadings is provided in Specifications (see. Operation manual).
Transportation of goods in car salon
Reliably fix all placed in car salon subjects, in order to avoid their shift in case of a road accident.
Do not place large-sized subjects on the back shelf of salon — they narrow to the driver sector of the review and can be dumped forward at collision and sharp braking.
Be convinced of that the subjects laid on a floor behind forward seats, cannot be rolled forward and under no circumstances are not capable to prevent to manipulate freely to the driver management pedals, and also cannot break correctness of adjustment of provision of forward seats.
Hold a ware box during movement by the closed.
Transportation of goods in a luggage compartment or on a luggage carrier established on a roof of the car
Try to distribute cargo evenly, placing luggage possibly closer to seats. Heavy cargoes always should settle down from below, on a floor of a luggage compartment. Reliably fix transported subjects a strong cord that they could not be displaced under way the car. Never stack luggage above level of backs of forward seats.
In transit large-sized or lengthy subjects at the combined back seats, try to fix reliably them a strong cord to prevent cargo shift during emergency braking of the car. Do not stack luggage above level of backs of seats in order to avoid reduction of sector of the review to the driver.
The description of operations of folding of backs of back seats and their installation in a starting position — see. Salon equipment.
In need of transportation of the lengthy subjects, not allowing to close a door a back / cover of a luggage compartment, remember that the fulfilled gases of the engine can get to salon of the car — carry out the appropriate measures of precaution (see. Salon equipment).
At cargo placement on a luggage carrier established on a roof of the car, track, that the cumulative mass of luggage did not exceed admissible value. For obtaining more detailed information address on Opel company car repair shop.
Features of start of the engine in cold weather in the conditions of highlands (height above sea level more than 2400 m)
Five-step manual box of gear shifting
For ensuring smooth and unaccented switching all transfers of a forward course are synchronized. After transfer of the lever of switching of a transmission to the provision of the following transfer smoothly release a coupling pedal. During movement on the chosen transfer completely remove a foot from a coupling pedal in order to avoid premature wear of components of the mechanism of the last.
Include backing transfer only after a full stop of the car. Attempt include a reverse under way can to lead to serious damage of a transmission. Before inclusion of a reverse gear completely switch off coupling and sustain short (in some seconds) a pause.
For delay of the car it is possible to use braking by the engine, having switched a transmission to one of the lowered steps. Braking by the engine allows to supervise speed of movement of the car at safe level and prevents an overheat of brake mechanisms at movement on long descents with a considerable bias. Switch a transmission to the lowered steps consistently, in process of decrease in speed not to allow excess of the most admissible frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft of the engine on a tachometer. The arrow of a tachometer should not come into a red zone of a scale. In all cases it is necessary to be guided by values of the maximum admissible speed of the car on the corresponding transfers (see below).
The recommended moments of gear shifting
Try to move on the highest transfer providing in specific road conditions normal functioning of the engine at uniform movement and possibility of smooth dispersal of the car. Following of this recommendation will provide high profitability of the car and effective work of system of neutralization of the fulfilled gases.
The most admissible speeds of movement of the car on various transfers
Watch timeliness of gear shifting — try not to allow calling of an arrow of a tachometer in the range of a measuring scale allocated with red color.
In order to avoid engine breakage before transfer switching, be convinced that the arrow of a tachometer does not exceed the most admissible speed of movement on this transfer and is not in a red zone of a scale.
On cars of considered brand the four-stage hydromechanical automatic transmission with the blocked hydrotransformer and an electronic and hydraulic control system is established. The control system of a transmission provides timely and smooth switching of all steps of a forward course. Blocking of the hydrotransformer improves profitability of fuel consumption. On subjective feelings inclusion of a blocking friction clutch of the hydrotransformer similar to usual switching of a step of a transmission.
Positions of the lever of the selector of ranges
When switching ranges of an automatic transmission move the lever along a directing groove. The lever of switching of ranges is blocked in the situation "R" if the ignition key will turn in the situation "LOCK" (0) or "ASS" (i). In this case the lever conclusion from the situation "R" is impossible even when squeezing a brake pedal.
Situation "R". In this position of the lever of the selector of ranges the secondary shaft of transmission is mechanically blocked. Always transfer the lever of the selector of ranges to the situation "R" at switching off or engine start. To deduce the lever of the selector of ranges from the situation "R", it is necessary to squeeze out a brake pedal, previously having released a gas pedal. Reject the lever of the selector of ranges to the right and deduce it from the situation "R". If after performance of all listed above actions still it is not possible to deduce the lever from the situation "R", it is necessary to unblock it, following the instructions stated below.
In order to avoid breakage of AT transfer the lever to the situation "R" only after a full stop of the car.
Situation "R". Receptions of management by the lever of the selector of ranges at its transfer to the situation "R" (Backing) from the situation "R" are described above. Turning on of the lever in the situation "R" from the situation "N" make only after a full stop of the car.
Automatic transmission is equipped with the special safety device which does not allow to move the lever to the situation "R" if speed of the car exceeds value of 10 — 12 km/h casually.
If the backing does not join after a full stop of the car, squeeze out a brake pedal and slowly move the lever of the selector of ranges at first to the situation "N", then in the situation "R".
At malfunction of the safety device, and also at disconnected from an onboard network or the discharged storage battery to include a range of a backing it is impossible. In this case it is necessary to remove blocking of inclusion of a range of a backing, following instructions stated below.
Situation "N". Use the situation "N" at start of the decayed engine under way and at short stops of the car with working engine. If for any reason it is necessary for you to depart from the car, previously transfer the lever of the selector of ranges to the situation "R" (Parking). At a lever conclusion of the situation "N" squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake.
Situation "D". In this situation the lever of the selector of ranges should be constantly at car movement in normal road conditions. In a range of "D" automatic gear shifting of a forward course in all range of transfers depending on speed of movement of the car and degree of pressing an accelerator pedal is provided. During car movement you can notice that automatic switchings on the highest transfers occurs later, that is at higher speeds of movement if the engine of the car is yet heated-up to normal working temperature. This function provides faster warming up of the engine.
Situation "3". If the lever of the selector of ranges is included in the provision "3", the automatic transmission functions similar to a case of inclusion of a range of "D". Difference consists that transition to the fourth transfer is excluded. The range «3» is recommended to be used at trailer towage in the hilly district or for implementation of braking by the engine on descent of a considerable steepness. Inclusion of a range «3» is useful also for an exception of superfluous cyclic switchings of automatic transmission between the third and fourth transfers. Similar cyclic switchings of a transmission can be observed, for example, at movement in a dense transport stream with frequent delays and car stops.
For sharp dispersal of the car at transmission work in a range of "D" or «3» squeeze out a gas pedal against the stop. Thus the transmission will automatically pass to adjacent lowest transfer (kickdown mode). If speed of the car is insignificant, the transmission can be switched at once to two steps down.
Situation "2". At inclusion of a range «2» possibility of switching of transmission on transfers above the 2nd step is blocked.
At inclusion of a range «2» under way the car inclusion of the second transfer to transmissions automatically is late and occurs only after speed of the car will decrease to safe level on which frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft of the engine will not exceed the most admissible value.
Situation "1". At inclusion of a range «1» automatic transmission will constantly work at the first transfer. If inclusion of a range «1» is made for the speed more than 50 km/h, transmission at first will be switched to the second transfer. Inclusion of an intermediate step allows to exclude sharp and unexpected braking by the engine.
Maximum admissible speeds of movement of the car
At excess of the maximum admissible values of speeds of gear shifting of the shooter of a tachometer comes into a red zone of a scale, pointing to excess of admissible turns of the engine. Thus the electronic block of a control system starts to limit to the engine turns of a cranked shaft, reducing supply of fuel that it is possible to feel on power setting change. Operation of the engine settles into shape, as soon as the arrow of a tachometer leaves a red zone of a scale.
In order to avoid engine breakage before transfer switching, be convinced that the arrow of a tachometer does not come for value of the most admissible speed of movement on this transfer and is not in a red zone of a scale.
Sports mode of functioning of AT
Winter mode of functioning of AT
Switching off of a winter mode occurs by repeated pressing the switch button, transfer of the lever of the selector to situation "2" or "1", and also at ignition switching off. For the purpose of protection of transmission against internal damages automatic switching off of a winter mode occurs also at ATF overheats.
Switching off of blocking of the lever of the selector of ranges
At shutdown of power supply or an excessive discharge of the storage battery the conclusion of the lever of the selector from the situation "R" becomes impossible. For an exit from this situation and removal of blocking of the lever act as follows:
For prevention of repeated blocking of the lever in the situation "R" eliminate the reason of interruptions of a food.
Refusals of functioning of AT
At refusals of automatic switching of transmission further movement can be continued in emergency operation, carrying out gear shifting manually by means of the selector lever. Thus inclusion of the 2nd transfer and switching is completely blocked occurs 1-3-4. The following scheme of a ratio of positions of the lever thus takes place:
1= 1st transfer
For elimination of causes of failures of AT address on firm car repair shops of the Opel company.
Leaving the car on parking, always cock the parking brake. Remember that the control lamp of inclusion of the parking brake built in in an instrument guard, serves only for a reminder to the driver about need of an otpuskaniye of the parking brake before a start of motion. Burning of a control lamp does not guarantee completeness of raising of the parking brake. In order to avoid a spontaneous skatyvaniye of the car on a bias be convinced that the parking brake is cocked properly.
At first it is necessary to cock the parking brake (see below item. The control lamp of violations of functioning of ABS), and then to include first or reverse gear (model with RKPP) / to transfer the lever of the selector of ranges of an automatic transmission to the situation "R". Such sequence of actions prevents a casual troganiye of the car, and on models from AT also excludes transfer of considerable load of the mechanism of blocking of a secondary shaft of transmission from skatyvayushchy the force car — unloading of the coupling of blocking of a secondary shaft of transmission provides at the subsequent troganiye of the car simplicity of a conclusion of the lever from the situation "R".
At a car parking on lifting, develop forward wheels aside from a border, and on the contrary.
Before a start of motion, be convinced that the parking brake is completely released. At movement with not completely released parking brake the overheat and failure of brake mechanisms of back wheels is possible. Besides, it can lead to violation of serviceability of functioning of ABS.
Recommendation about a safe parking of the car
Track, that the top hatch in a roof and all windows were closed.
Switch off all devices of lighting.
Put luggage and valuable things in being closed offices, or grasp them with itself.
Lock locks of doors by means of a key or a remote control the uniform lock.
On the models equipped with anticreeping system, make sure of turning on of the indicator of system on the dashboard which testifies to device activation.
Never leave the car with working engine on the platforms covered with dry foliage, a high grass or other combustible materials. Remember that the case of the catalytic converter can be heated to very high temperature that is fraught with ignition.
The general information on brake system is provided in Head Brake system.
Recommendations about security measures at operation of the models equipped with ABS
ABS does not reduce a brake way of the car and is capable to provide only preservation of controllability of the car in the course of braking. In view of told it is necessary to support constantly a safe distance to ahead going vehicle, proceeding from speed of the car and specific conditions of movement.
ABS does not prevent lateral юз at sharp change of the direction of movement of the car. For example, the car can enter into drift when passing turn on too high speed or at wheel breakthrough during lane change. Always support safe speed of a vehicle, being conformed to a condition of a paving and traffic conditions.
ABS does not prevent loss of course stability of the car. In the course of emergency braking avoid sharp breakthroughs of a steering wheel.
The brake way of the equipped ABS car can exceed a little habitual for models with usual brake system. Told especially considerably at movement on fragile and rough pavings (gravel, snow). At movement in similar road conditions lower speed and increase a distance to ahead going vehicle.
Control lamp of violations of functioning of ABS
The self-diagnostics block is switched on in structure of system of anti-blocking. Outwardly procedure of self-diagnostics of system is shown by small pulsations of a foot brake right after engine start. Problem diagnostics of ABS is made also at each braking of the car.
At identification by system of any malfunction on a control panel the corresponding control lamp (lights up see. Dashboard). Operation of a control lamp testifies that ABS is disconnected. Thus operability of working brake system remains fully, except for function of automatic control of brake effort which is carried out by ABS. If the control lamp of ABS does not die away after start of the engine or joins in movement time, it is necessary to address at the first possibility on the next car repair shop.
Joint inclusion of control lamps of ABS and refusals brake systems / raisings of the parking brake also means shutdown of function of regulation of brake effort that points to existence of malfunctions both in ABS, and in brake system. Thus the brake system of the car will continue to provide rather adequate braking of the car, however it is necessary to avoid sharp squeezing of a pedal of a foot brake. Immediately address on the next car repair shop.
Control system of speed (темпостат)
The control system of speed (темпостат) enters into a standard complete set of some models, on others can be established in addition. The system allows to support automatically the chosen cruiser speed of movement of the car without impact on a gas pedal. Cruiser speed should not exceed value of 30 km/h. Application темпостата becomes especially convenient at long movement on the low-loaded direct country highways. For the purpose of safety it is not recommended to include темпостат at movement in the city, on twisting, abounding with turns, to roads, on a slippery paving, in a heavy rain or at other adverse weather conditions. In the cases listed above the driver should have possibility completely to supervise a mode of movement of the car.
Management of functioning темпостата
By pressing a key I the system is activated and the current instant value of speed registers in memory of the processor — it is possible to release a gas pedal. Accelerator squeezing at included темпостате will lead to car acceleration, after a pedal otpuskaniye, speed of movement will return to the chosen cruiser value.
Repeated short-term pressing of a key I lead to increase in chosen cruiser value with a step of 2 km/h.
Sbrasyvaniye is carried out supported cruiser speed by short-term pressing a key R (the same step).
For compulsory switching off темпостата the button 0 serves. Besides, the control system of speed is disconnected automatically at decrease in speed of movement below 30 km/h, squeezing of a pedal of a foot brake or coupling, or transfer of the lever of the AT selector to the situation "N".
For return to brought in memory of the processor of cruiser speed of movement it is enough to press a key R at the current speed movement above 30 km/h.
Cleaning of memory of the processor of the module of management темпостата occurs automatically at ignition switching off.
Electronic auxiliary systems
Protivozanosny system (ESP)
Activation of ESP system occurs automatically and allows to improve stability of a course of the car at movement on the road with non-uniform on quality of coupling with tires a covering. The module of management of ESP carries out also control of functioning of antiprobuksovochny system (TCS) (see below).
At emergence of risk of drift of the car on the team arriving from the module of management of ESP there is an automatic decrease in capacity developed by the engine, at the same time there is a rastormazhivaniye of beginners to go yuzy wheels.
Initiation of ESP occurs at the included ignition after shutdown of the corresponding control lamp (see. Dashboard). The same lamp serves for indication of activation of the ESP mode (a flashing mode) that should pay attention of the driver to need to be careful when driving. Lamp inclusion in a continuous mode during movement testifies to refusal in system — for debugging drive away the car on firm car repair shop Opel.
Antiprobuksovochny system (TCS)
System component a complete set of some models the antiprobuksovochny system (tracking control) allowing more surely to get under way from a place can enter and to be dispersed on a slippery paving. The system automatically limits capacity developed by the engine as soon as one of driving wheels loses coupling with a paving and starts to revolve. To feel operation of antiprobuksovochny system it is possible on reaction on a steering wheel.
Initiation of system occurs at the included ignition after shutdown of the corresponding control lamp (see. Dashboard). The same lamp serves for indication of activation of the ESP mode (a flashing mode) that should pay attention of the driver to need to be careful when driving. Lamp inclusion in a continuous mode during movement testifies to refusal in system — for debugging drive away the car on firm car repair shop Opel.
Compulsory shutdown of TCS is not obviously possible.
System of piloting of a parking
The system facilitates a parking a backing by continuous measurement of distance from a rear bumper to an obstacle by means of the ultrasonic transceiver.
At approach slowly moving to an obstacle on distance less than 1 m in salon of the car is distributed by a car backing a pulse warning sound signal. In process of distance reduction to an obstacle frequency of impulses of a signal is reduced. At distance reduction to 30 cm the signal becomes continuous.
Adjustment of a road gleam (Versatile person model)
The pneumatic device of adjustment of a road gleam allows to compensate a usadka of a body of the car at high loading. Correction of a road clearance is carried out by pumping in air in the reception union of a working path of system — use the regular pump, the compressor, or pump station at filling station.
After unloading of the car do not forget to dump pressure in system to value of 80 kPas.
Recommendations about car driving in adverse weather conditions
Features of driving in adverse road conditions
Driving during a rain, in a strong fog or snowfall demands from the driver of special skills, in view of decrease in coupling of wheels with a paving and visibility deteriorations. Constantly support the car in technically working order. At commission of trips to bad weather observe extra care. Avoid use темпостата (at the corresponding complete set of the car) in adverse weather conditions.
Lower speed and move more slowly, than usually in normal weather conditions on a dry paving. Remember that reactions of the car to management will be more languid and slowed down even if the paving looks only slightly damp. Try to influence all controls of the car smoothly. On a wet and slippery paving sharp breakthrough of a steering wheel or careless squeezing of a brake pedal can lead to control loss over management. At the beginning of a trip, still completely without having adapted for adverse weather conditions, show the increased care. This rule is especially useful for observing at movement during snowfall. It is necessary to remember that at car operation in a warm season many useful skills of driving of the car on a slippery paving are forgotten that demands some time for their restoration.
Extra care show, operating the car during a rain as absence of practice during the dry period does not allow to be reconstructed and adapt a driving manner for new conditions quickly.
For safety of traffic in any weather conditions it is very important to have the good review in all directions. It is worth to remember to care also that your car remained to well appreciable drivers of other vehicles — remember that at movement on the route inclusion of a passing beam never will prevent, even during daylight hours. These requirements are more difficult for executing in adverse weather conditions.
Regularly check a condition of brushes of screen wipers and snuffled windscreen washers. Constantly support demanded level of liquid in the tank of washing liquid. Use for filling of system of washing of glasses only the liquids, recommended brands. Watch a condition of working elements of screen wipers, make their replacement as soon as brushes cease to clear glass properly. For prevention of condensation of moisture on an internal surface of glasses use having blown in glasses air, in case of need turn on the air conditioner.
Coupling of tires with a paving
Regularly supervise pressure of air in tires and degree of a deterioration of protectors of tires (depth of a pattern). Both these a factor are extremely important from the point of view of good coupling of tires with a paving and prevention of the phenomenon of hydroplaning, that is sharp reduction of coupling with the road at entrance to pools. For ensuring the best controllability with the car and traffic safety at approach of a winter season use shipovanny rubber.
During movement constantly watch changes of road conditions which often appear very unstable. Presence on the road of wet foliage can be not dangerous, than ice. Often in appearance the pure and dry paving can обледеневать separate sites. Especially dangerous conditions develop at air temperatures near 0°С when pools can alternate with наледью that does behavior of the car especially unpredictable.
Be careful when switching an automatic transmission in the lowered range. On a slippery covering sharp inclusion of a low gear can lead to short-term pro-slipping of driving wheels and car drift.
Extra care and attention are required from the driver at commission of overtakings. Equally it is necessary to observe attentiveness, when overtaking your car by other vehicles. Water and dirt splashes from under wheels of the overtaken lorry can sharply worsen visibility through a windscreen. The rush of a lateral wind during commission of overtaking of the truck or the bus is dangerous control loss over management.
Models of cars considered in the real Management first of all are, of course, passenger and are intended for transportation of people and their luggage. However, at obligatory observance of a number of the general rules which are given below, Opel cars can be used also with success for trailer towage.
The full mass of the trailer including its own weight and mass of cargo placed in it, should not exceed limiting admissible weight of the towed trailer (see. Specifications at the beginning of Head the Operation manual). The limiting admissible mass of the trailer depends on that, it is equipped with brake mechanisms, or not.
The maximum vertical load of the hook-on device of the car at full mass of the trailer should not exceed 50 kgfs. For trailers with full weight to 500 kg it is necessary to adhere to the following rule: vertical load of a turnbuckle should make about 10 % from full weight of the trailer. For example, if the full mass of the trailer with cargo is equal 225 kg, vertical load of the hook-on device should make about 22.5 kgfs. Adjust load of a car turnbuckle, as appropriate placing cargo on the trailer. For a start it is recommended to place cargo so that about 60 % of its weight were ahead of a trailer axis, and 40 % — behind. If the full mass of the trailer exceeds 500 kg, try to distribute cargo on length of the trailer more evenly. Never load the trailer so that the back part of the trailer outweighed a lobby — it leads to unloading of back wheels of the car that worsens coupling of tires with a paving.
Full masses of the car and the towed trailer should not exceed the corresponding maximum admissible values (see. Specifications at the beginning of Head the Operation manual).
The most reliable way of check of correctness of loading of the car and the trailer is weighing. Load the car and the trailer how they are usually maintained as a part of a road train, and weigh them on cargo scales. Define values of full mass of the car and the trailer, and also the masses falling on an axes of the car and the trailer. Compare results of measurements to requirements of Specifications (see. Operation manual).
The design of the hook-on device intended for installation on your car should meet completely to all necessary requirements, in case of need consult at Opel company car repair shop.
The hook-on device should fasten in several specially provided points on the basis of a car body that loadings from the towed trailer were distributed more evenly and fell on elements of strengthening of a body. It is forbidden to mount the hook-on devices leaning only on a rear bumper which is not intended for perception of similar loads on the car. Installation of a turnbuckle should be made by car-care center qualified personnel.
Towage of the large-sized trailer (Caravan type) usually demands installation on the car of additional rear-view mirrors with the extended arms. Specify requirements of the local legislation and the Traffic regulations, concerning towages of trailers by cars. Attach the trailer to the car and estimate extent of deterioration of the back review through standard rear-view mirrors. If the review unsatisfactory, for reasons of safety it is necessary to equip the special mirrors, providing to the driver the adequate review of space behind the car.
Connection of the trailer to the car
If you are going to get the trailer equipped with brake mechanisms, be convinced that they have an electric drive of management — the design of a hydraulic drive of working brake system of your car does not provide connection possibility to it any additional contours, in particular, for actuating of brake mechanisms of the trailer. Any way of accession to a brake hydraulic actuator of the car of brake system of the trailer, what attractive it would not seem, will lead to deterioration of efficiency of braking of the car and decrease in traffic safety.
Attaching the trailer to the car, always use a safety chain. The ends of a safety chain should be reliably fixed to the corresponding places on дышле the trailer and on the hook-on device of the car. Track, that the chain passed under dyshly the trailer — it will prevent falling of the forward end дышла on the road in case of a hitch rassoyedineniye. The free length of a chain should be sufficient not to disturb commission of turns of a road train with the minimum radiuses, however, it is not necessary to allow chain drawings on the ground.
Devices of external lighting and the alarm system on the trailer
As on trailers of various brands various laying of electroconducting can be used, it is necessary to charge the equipment of a turnbuckle to specialists of car-care center. In certain cases installation of a transitional nozzle (adapter) can be demanded.
Before connecting trailer electric equipment to the car power supply network, surely consult at car repair shop.
Preparation for trailer towage
Before a start of motion it is necessary to make control survey and car and trailer check.
Security measures at trailer towage
It is necessary to consider that the brake way of the car towing the trailer, increases. Therefore, moving with the trailer, you should support the increased distance to ahead going car. Try to avoid sharp braking and turns. It can lead to folding of a road train or even a trailer perevorachivaniye.
Remember that the length of a road train considerably exceeds length of the single car. At turn to the right leave between edge of a carriageway and wheels of the right board of the car the bigger distance, than usually is considerable to avoid arrival by trailer wheels on a border. Consider that at road train turn the trailer moves on an arch of smaller radius, than the car, and can run or face an obstacle which the car freely passed. When overtaking other vehicle do not hurry up to come back to the row as it can lead to collision of the overtaken car with the trailer.
The road train, in comparison with the single car, is more sensitive to action of rushes of a lateral wind and aerodynamic indignations from other cars. If you are overtaken at great speed by the heavy truck or a road train, try to support rectilinear and uniform movement of the car. To reduce the aerodynamic indignations operating on a road train from ahead going car, lower speed to leave a turbulent stream.
At trailer towage load of all main units and systems of the car increases. Therefore at frequent use of the car for towage of the trailer it is necessary to carry out periodic maintenance of the car according to regulations, characteristic for intense service conditions (see. Head Routine maintenance).
Additional load of the car even more increases at road train operation in the hilly district. When overcoming long liftings watch closely a temperature mode of the engine according to the strelochny index on a control panel. At approach of an arrow of the index to an overheat zone, switch off the air conditioner (if it is equipped and included) and continue movement. If the temperature of cooling liquid of the engine does not decrease, or continues to raise, stop on a roadside of the road and let's to the engine cool down.
At movement in a hilly or hilly terrain cyclic switching of the third and fourth transfers of automatic transmission can be observed. In this case it is necessary to pass to the lowered range «3» that will prevent an overheat and excessive wear of details of the AT frictional elements. In order to avoid an overheat of brake mechanisms at movement on long descents use braking by the engine. For effective braking by the engine include the lowered range or one of the lowest steps of an automatic transmission.
At a road train stop on lifting do not hold it on a place by pressing педели gas — it can lead to AT overheat. Use working brake system, or the parking brake.
At management of automatic transmission in a manual mode use the third, second and first transfers, being conformed to speed of movement of the car and road conditions. Towing the trailer, do not include the fourth transfer. Recommended high-speed ranges are given in Specifications for use of various steps of a transmission.
At road train statement on long parking, especially on descent or lifting, accept all precautionary measures for reliable braking of the car and the trailer. Turn forward wheels of the car so that at a road train skatyvaniye they rested against a bordyurny stone. Completely cock the parking brake and transfer the lever of the selector of ranges to the situation "R". On equipped RKPP models include the first, or a reverse gear. In addition enclose under both wheels of the trailer protivootkatny boots.
Management of road train at movement by a backing presents certain difficulties and demands from the driver of special skills and training. Move a backing carefully and slowly, do not rotate unduly quickly a steering wheel. When maneuvering by a backing in the constrained conditions it is useful, that someone, standing outside, watched movings of the trailer and directed your actions. Keep in mind that at rotation of a steering wheel clockwise (to the right) the trailer moves to the left, and on the contrary. When maneuvering road train by a backing it is recommended to hold a rim of a steering wheel from below (instead of from above, as usual, at movement by a forward course). At such successful fellow habitual compliance between the direction of turn of a steering wheel and trailer movement remains: hand shift to the left leads to trailer turn also to the left and on the contrary.