Opel Astra, Zafira

since 1998 of release

Repair and car operation



Opel Astra
+ Opel Astra and Zafira Cars
+ Operation manual
- Routine maintenance
   Schedule of routine maintenance
   Specifications
   General information about settings and adjustments
   Check of levels of liquids
   Check of a condition of tires and pressure of their rating, rotation of wheels
   Replacement of impellent oil and oil filter
   Check of a condition and replacement of a belt of a drive of auxiliary units
   Sediment removal from the fuel filter of the diesel engine
   Check of a condition and replacement of the hoses located in an impellent compartment
   Check of a condition of components of system of cooling
   Check, service and charging of the storage battery
   Check of a condition and replacement of brushes of screen wipers
   Survey of components of a suspension bracket and steering drive, check of a condition of protective covers of power shafts
   Check of brake system
   Electric equipment check
   Control of a condition of an anticorrosive covering of a body and car bottom
   Greasing of locks, loops and emphasis
   Zeroing of the indicator of intervals of maintenance
   Replacement of a filtering element of an air purifier - diesel models of release on 09.2000
   Replacement of the salonny filter
   Replacement of the fuel filter - diesel models of release on 09.2000
   Check of turns of idling and composition of the fulfilled gases
   Replacement of a filtering element of an air purifier - all petrol models and release diesel engines with 10.2000
   Replacement of the fuel filter - diesel models of release with 10.2000
   Replacement of spark plugs, check of a condition of VV of electroconducting
   Replacement of the fuel filter - petrol models
+ Engine
+ Systems of cooling, heating
+ Power supply system and release
+ engine Electric equipment
+ Manual transmission
+ Automatic transmission
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Body
+ Onboard electric equipment

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Replacement of spark plugs, check of a condition of VV of electroconducting

In electronic system of ignition, very high voltage is generated! Be attentive, observe all necessary precautionary measures at service of any components of system, turning on not only the main (the ignition module, the coil and wire VV), but also and accompanying, such as candle sockets, a tachometer and the other equipment. Persons with the implanted pacemaker to be allowed to service of components of system of ignition should not!


Tools necessary at replacement of spark plugs

1 — the Candle head — Is equipped with the special elastic loose leaf excluding possibility of casual damage of a porcelain insulator at a reversing of a candle.
2 — the Dinamometrichesky key — without entering into number of obligatory tools, provides a reliable guarantee of correctness of effort of a tightening of spark plugs.
3 — the Ratchet drive — Is applied in a set with a candle head and a dinamometrichesky key.

4 — the Extension piece — Depending on model and a complete set access to spark plugs can be limited by its auxiliary units in various degree therefore use of extension pieces of the corresponding form and a design will allow to facilitate procedure performance considerably.
5 — the Tool for measurement and correction of interelectrode gaps of spark plugs — Is issued some this sort of types of tools - make sure that the tool is completed shchupy, to gaps of candles of your car corresponding on the size.

Check of a condition and service of spark plugs

On Z20LET engines replacement of spark plugs is made through each 30 000 km of run.

By correctness of functioning of spark plugs efficiency of return of the engine considerably is defined. It is important, that on the engine candles of the corresponding type (were established see. Specifications). Need for unplanned service of spark plugs arises extremely seldom provided that actually the engine is in good repair. In order to avoid casual damage of electrodes, it is not necessary to make cleaning of candles without use of the special equipment.

In most cases for replacement of spark plugs existence of a special candle head (with the elastic loose leaf inside) complete with a ratchet drive, and also a set (see an illustration the Tools necessary at replacement of spark plugs) is necessary. For a safe detachment of tips of VV of wires from shafts of spark plugs the special tool though its application and is not strictly obligatory also is issued. Use of a dinamometrichesky key will allow to achieve the correct effort of a tightening of candles.

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

  1. On models 1.4, 1,6 and 1.8 of l of DOHC uncover a maslozalivny mouth, turn out fixing screws and remove a protective casing of the engine. Establish into place a cover of a maslozalivny mouth.
  1. On models of 2.0 l turn out fixing screws and remove a protective cover of candles from a cover of the gas-distributing mechanism.
  1. On models of 1.6 l of SOHC and 2.0 l if marking of high-voltage wires is not visible, put it. Disconnect VV from spark plugs — pull for a tip, instead of for a wire.
  1. On models 1.6л SOHC, 1.4 and 1.8 l the DOHC module of ignition is established between cases of camshafts, is direct over spark plugs — disconnect from it electroconducting. Turn out fixing screws and remove the ignition module from a head of cylinders. If the module "became attached" and does not give in to office, screw in its carving openings pair of long bolts М8 and try to use them as handles.
  1. Spark plugs on some of considered models are deeply drowned in candle niches therefore their reversing needs the extension piece of a drive of a key. Having put on a candle a head, connect a drive and, accurately rotating a collar counter-clockwise, turn out a candle.

    1 — Vorotok with a ratchet drive
    2 — the Extension piece
    3 — Kardanny the hinge
    4 — the Candle head with the elastic loose leaf
    5 — the Spark plug

  1. Verify the turned-out candle with the card of conditions provided on a photographic insert that will allow to estimate the general condition of the engine qualitatively.
  2. Check of a condition of candles gives good idea of an engine condition. If on an insulator of the central electrode completely there are no traces of any deposits, it says about repauperization of an air and fuel mix, or that excessively "hot" candle (heat removal from an insulator to the case on "hot" candles is used occurs much less intensively, than on "cold").
  3. Presence on electrodes of a black deposit testifies to mix reenrichment and if the deposit thus still has an oily consistence, it is necessary to think also of more detailed assessment of degree of wear of internal components of the engine.
  4. The raid of a golden or gray-brown shade on an insulator confirms serviceability of a condition of the engine and correctness of configuration of an air and fuel mix.
  1. All engines in a standard complete set are equipped with multielectrode candles. Installation of interelectrode gaps on such candles is made at manufacturer and any adjustments does not need.
  1. When using non-standard candles with one lateral electrode (that is not recommended), into the forefront there is a factor of correctness of installation of the interelectrode gap by which size intensity of an iskroobrazovaniye and, as a result, correctness of ignition of a mix and development of process of its combustion in all modes of operation of the engine is defined. Installation of interelectrode gaps should be made according to instructions of manufacturers of candles.
  1. Measurement of size of an interelectrode gap on candles of adjustable type is made by means of special щупа wire type.

At adjustment it is necessary to turn in only a lateral electrode — attempts of deformation of the central electrode are fraught with irreversible damage of an insulator. The nozzle for correction of provision of an electrode usually enters into a set щупа.

If to measurement of a candle gap it is applied usual щуп lezviyny type, it is possible to consider a gap adjusted correctly when an edge (I) щупа pass in it with easy resistance.

  1. Before installation of a candle make sure that the carving tip is densely screwed, and a carving on the case and an external surface of a candle are well cleaned.
  1. Manually acquire one of new candles in the corresponding opening in the engine. Having made sure that the candle is not warped in a carving, tighten it with demanded effort (in the presence of near at hand dinamometrichesky key). For simplification of procedure of a nazhivleniye of a candle pull on its shaft a piece of a flexible fuel hose. The probability of failure of a carving as at the slightest zakusyvaniye the hose will start to be turned simply is thus excluded. Operating in a similar manner, establish all remained candles.
  1. On models of the corresponding complete set before connecting to spark plugs of VV of a wire, execute procedures of service of the last (see below).
  2. Connection of VV of a wire is carried out by rotary progress of its tip — the last should sit down on a candle shaft (pay attention to marking of wires) densely. On models without VV of electroconducting establish the module of ignition and tighten its fixture with demanded effort.

Check of a condition of candle wires (only models of 1.6 l of SOHC and 2.0 l)

Check of a condition of VV of electroconducting should be made regardless of that, replacement of spark plugs was made, or not.

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

  1. Check begins with external survey of isolation of wires at the working engine. Tire out the car in a dark room, start the engine and make sure of lack of an iskroobrazovaniye on wires. Iskroobrazovaniye is a sign of breakdown of isolation. Try not to touch moving components in an impellent compartment. Make necessary marks on replacement of defective wires, then let's to the engine cool down and start checks of a condition of a cover and a begunka of the distributor of ignition.
  2. Check of candle wires is made serially in order to avoid violation of an order of their connection at assembly. Usually on isolation of firm wires there is the corresponding marking. In case of absence that, put it independently by means of an adhesive tape and a marker.
  1. Disconnect VV a wire from a spark plug (best of all use the special tool). At all do not pull for a wire, only for its tip.
  1. Attentively examine internal walls of a tip. Corrosion is usually shown in the form of a fragile korkoobrazny raid of white color.
  2. Pull a tip back on a shaft of the candle, make sure of density of its landing. In case of need again remove a tip and turn in plugs in a rubber cover.
  3. Pure rags wipe a wire on all its length, having completely removed from an isolation surface dirt and greasing traces. Examine wire isolation on existence of cracks, traces прогара and other damages. Try not to bend a wire under acute angles in order to avoid violation of integrity of veins of the conductor in isolation.
  4. Check a condition of contacts of wires from the ignition module — again pull only for a tip.
  5. Replacement of VV of electroconducting should be made a set, even in case of an exit from only one of wires.
  6. Even at an excellent condition of system of ignition, at start in crude weather there can be failures — in case of need spray system elements vlagopogloshchayushchy spray — ask in shops of automobile accessories.

Typical damages of spark plugs

Coal deposits

Symptoms: Availability of soot indicates reenrichment of a fuel and air mix or weak intensity of a spark. Causes ignition admissions, complicates start and results in instability of operation of the engine.
Recommendations: Whether check the air purifier is hammered, whether fuel level in the poplavkovy chamber is not too high, whether the air zaslonka is jammed and whether contacts are not too worn-out. Try to use candles with longer insulator that increases resilience to pollution.

Zamaslivaniye

Symptoms: Zamaslivaniye of a candle is called by wear of maslootrazhatelny caps. Oil gets to the combustion chamber through worn-out directing valves or piston rings. Causes ignition admissions, complicates start and results in instability of operation of the engine.
Recommendations: Make mechanical restore

Overheat

Symptoms: Porous, white insulator, erosion of electrodes and absence of any deposits. Leads to reduction of service life of a candle.
Recommendations: Whether check there corresponds to requirements of Specifications kalilny number of the established candles, whether the corner of an advancing of ignition is correctly exposed, whether too poor fuel and air mix moves, whether there are no leakages of vacuum of the inlet pipeline and whether valves are jammed. Check as level of a cooler and whether the radiator is corked.

Too early ignition

Symptoms: Electrodes are melted off. The insulator has white color, but can be and is polluted owing to ignition or hit admissions in chambers of combustion of extraneous particles. Can lead to an engine exit out of operation.
Recommendations: Check kalilny number of the established candles, a corner of an advancing of ignition, quality of a mix (whether it is not too grown poor), whether the system of cooling is corked and whether the greasing system normally functions.

Electrocarrying-out luster

Symptoms: The insulator has yellowish color and the polished appearance. Speaks about sudden temperature increase in combustion chambers at sharp acceleration. Usual deposits are thus melted off, taking a form of a varnish covering. Leads to ignition admissions at high speeds of movement.
Recommendations: Replace candles (colder, at preservation of a manner of driving).

Short circuit of electrodes

Symptoms: A waste of products of combustion gets to interelectrode space. Firm deposits accumulate, forming a crossing point between electrodes. Leads to ignition refusal in the cylinder.
Recommendations: Remove deposits from interelectrode space.

Normal state of a candle

Symptoms: Gray-brown color and easy wear of electrodes. Kalilnoye number of candles corresponds to type of the engine and its general condition.
Recommendations: At replacement of candles establish candles of the same type.

Peploobrazovaniye

Symptoms: Soft brownish color of adjournment on one or both electrodes of a candle. A source of their education are applied additives to oil and/or fuel. Excessive accumulation can lead to isolation of electrodes and cause admissions of ignition and unstable operation of the engine at acceleration.
Recommendations: At fast accumulation of deposits change maslootrazhatelny caps that will prevent oil hit in combustion chambers. Try to replace fuel brand.

Wear

Symptoms: A rounding off of electrodes with a small congestion of deposits on the working end. Color normal. Leads to difficulty of start of the engine in cold damp weather and to fuel consumption increase.
Recommendations: Change candles on new, the same type.

Detonation

Symptoms: Insulators can appear chopped off or burst. Also inaccurate equipment of adjustment of a candle gap can lead to damage of an insulator. Can lead to damage of pistons.

Zabryzgivaniye

Symptoms: After ignition admissions during a long period of adjournment can be loosened at preservation of working temperature in the combustion chamber. At high speeds of adjournment in flakes come off the piston and stick to a hot insulator, causing ignition admissions.
Recommendations: Replace candles or smooth out and establish into place the old.

Mechanical damages

Symptoms: Can be caused by hit of extraneous materials in the chamber of combustion or arise at piston blow about too long candle. Lead to refusal of functioning of the cylinder and to piston damage.
Recommendations: Remove from the engine extraneous particles and/or replace.