Opel Astra, Zafira

since 1998 of release

Repair and car operation



Opel Astra
+ Opel Astra and Zafira Cars
+ Operation manual
+ Routine maintenance
+ Engine
+ Systems of cooling, heating
+ Power supply system and release
- Engine electric equipment
   Specifications
   - Electronic control system of ignition (and injection) petrol engines
      Checks of serviceability of functioning of system of ignition
      Diagnostics of malfunctions - the general information and preliminary checks
      System of onboard self-diagnostics of OBD - the general information
      Oscillograph application for supervision of workers of a control system
      Removal and installation of the module of ignition
      Check and installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition
      Removal and installation of the switch of ignition
      Removal and installation of the sensor of emergency pressure of oil
      Removal and installation of the sensor of level of impellent oil
      Removal and installation of the sensor of temperature of impellent oil (diesel models)
   + Systems of preheat and heating of fuel of the diesel engine
   + charge and start Systems
+ Manual transmission
+ Automatic transmission
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Body
+ Onboard electric equipment

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System of onboard self-diagnostics of OBD - the general information

The material given below has only descriptive character and is not adhered to any concrete brand or car model.

Data on diagnostic devices

Check of serviceability of functioning of components of systems of injection and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases is made by means of a universal digital measuring instrument (multimeter). Use of a digital measuring instrument preferably for several reasons. First, on analog devices it is rather difficult (sometimes, it is impossible), to define result of the indication to within the 100-th and thousand shares while at inspection of the contours including in the structure electronic components, such accuracy takes on special significance. The second, the reason that fact is not less important that the internal contour of a digital multimeter, has rather high impedance (internal resistance of the device makes 10 million Ohm). As the voltmeter is connected to a checked chain in parallel, accuracy of measurement by that is higher, than the smaller parasitic current will pass through actually device. This factor is not essential at measurement of rather high values of tension (9 — 12 In), however there is defining at diagnostics of elements giving out low-voltage signals, such, as, for example, a lambda probe where it is a question of measurement of shares of volt.

The most convenient devices for diagnostics of control systems by the engine of modern models of cars are manual input readers of skanerny type. Scanners of the first generation serve for reading of codes of malfunctions of OBD-I systems. Before application the input reader should be checked on compliance of model and year of release of the checked car. Some scanners are multipurpose at the expense of possibility of change of a cartridge depending on model of the diagnosed car (Ford, GM, Chrysler, etc.), others are adhered to requirements of the regional authorities and are intended for use in certain regions of the world (Europe, Asia, the USA etc.).

Recently, at diagnostics of control systems by the engine of modern cars such reading-out devices, as manual scanners of the Actron Scantool or AutoXray XP240 type became absolutely irreplaceable.

The diagnostic New Generation Star (NGS) scanner (wide application FDS 2000, Bosch FSA 560 scanners [www.bosch.de] and KTS 500 [0 684 400 500] received also).

With introduction in production meeting the requirements of the last legislations on environmental protection of system of onboard diagnostics of the second generation (OBD-II) input readers of a special design started to be issued. Some producers adjusted release of the scanners intended for use by amateur mechanics in house conditions, - ask in shops of automobile accessories.



One more very convenient diagnostic device is the expensive specialized diagnostic computer of the ADC2000 type of Launch HiTech firm), or the ordinary personal computer in a set with a special cable and the adapter (a set 1 687 001 439).

The adapter is intended for coordination of diagnostic lines K and L (see an illustration the Diagnostic socket of OBD II system, - at connection use a standard cable of OBD-II J1962) with the CATFISH port of the computer.

Some scanners besides usual diagnostic operations allow at connection to the personal computer to unpack being stored in memory of the module of management schematic diagrams of electric equipment (if those are put), to program anticreeping system, to observe signals in safety lock chains in real time.

The free version of a browser of OBD II can be downloaded from a site of originators of the real Management arus.spb.ru.

In principle, reading written down in memory of system of self-diagnostics of codes of malfunctions can be made by means of a control lamp of refusals of MIL and a wire crossing point established between concrete plugs of the 16-contact diagnostic socket.

General description of OBD system


The diagnostic socket of OBD II system, - at connection use a standard cable of OBD-II J1962

Purpose of some conclusions of the standard 16-contact DLC socket of OBD II system:

1 — -
2 — the data exchange Tyre «+»
3 — the Line of data exchange of AT, the electronic operated hatch of a roof, the uniform lock
4 — Connection with the case
5 — the Case - an alarm conclusion
6 — the Blinking code
7 — the Line K of data exchange of ECM, memory of provision of seats and mirrors (ISO 9141)
8 — the data exchange Line темпостата, the multipurpose information display, the anticreeping alarm system

9 — -
11 — -
10 — the data exchange Tyre «-»
12 — the Line of data exchange of ABS, antiprobuksovochny system, systems of safety, the power steering
13 — -
14 — -
15 — the Line L
16 — Protected by a safety lock «+» batteries (constantly energized)


On the modules equipped with OBD II system on established under a cowl шильде there should be a record "OBD II compliant", and the diagnostic DLC socket should be 16-contact. As a rule, the OBD II system surely equips the models intended for the North American market, since 1996 of release, and also the European models, since 2000 of release.

The structure of OBD system includes some diagnostic devices making monitoring of separate parameters of systems of decrease in toxicity and fixing revealed refusals in memory of the onboard processor in the form of individual codes of malfunctions. The system makes also check of sensors and actuation mechanisms, supervises operational cycles of a vehicle, provides possibility of freezing of parameters and cleaning of the block of memory.

All models described in the real Management are equipped with system of onboard diagnostics of the second generation (OBD-II). A basic element of system is the onboard processor more often called by the electronic module of management (ECM). ECM is a brain of a control system of the engine. Basic data arrive on the module from various information sensors and other electronic components (switches, the relay etc.) . On the basis of the analysis of data arriving from information sensors and according to put in memory of the processor in base parameters, ECM develops commands for operation of various operating relays and actuation mechanisms, carrying out thereby adjustment of working parameters of the engine and providing maximum efficiency of its return at the minimum fuel consumption. Data read-out of memory of the OBD-II processor is made by means of the special scanner connected to the 16-contact diagnostic socket of reading of a database (DLC), located under a decorative cover on the central console ahead of the lever of a drive of the parking brake (see illustrations the Diagnostic DLC socket is located in the central console ahead of the lever of the parking brake under a decorative cover , Location of the DLC socket in consoles and the Diagnostic socket of OBD II system, - at connection use a standard cable of OBD-II J1962).

In principle, reading written down in memory of system of self-diagnostics of codes of malfunctions can be made by means of a wire crossing point established between concrete plugs of the 16-contact diagnostic socket.

On service of components of control systems of engine / decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases special guarantee certificates with the prolonged validity period extend. It is not necessary to undertake attempts of independent performance of problem diagnostics of ECM or replacement of components of system, to an exit of terms of these obligations, - address to specialists of firm car repair shops of the Opel company.

Information sensors (depending on a car complete set)

Oxygen sensors (lambda probes)

The sensor develops a signal which amplitude depends on a difference of the content of oxygen (О2) in the fulfilled gases of the engine and external air.

Sensor of provision of a cranked shaft (SKR)

The sensor informs ECM on the provision of a cranked shaft and engine turns. This information is used by the processor at definition of the moments of injection of fuel and installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition.

Sensor of position of pistons (CYP)

On the basis of the analysis of signals of ECM arriving from the sensor calculates position of the piston of the first cylinder and uses this information at definition of the moments and sequence of injection of fuel in chambers of combustion of the engine.

(TDC) VMT sensor

Signals developed by the sensor are used by ECM at definition of installations of a corner of an advancing of ignition at the moment of engine start.

The sensor of temperature of cooling liquid of the engine (eats)

On the basis of information of ESM/arriving from the sensor carries out necessary corrections of structure of an air and fuel mix and a corner of an advancing of ignition, and also supervises EGR system work.

The sensor of temperature of soaked-up air (IAT)

ECM uses information arriving from the IAT sensor at corrections of a stream of fuel, installations of a corner of an advancing of ignition and management of EGR system functioning.

Sensor of provision of a butterfly valve (TPS)

The sensor is located on the case of a throttle and connected to a butterfly valve axis. By amplitude of given-out TPS of a signal of ECM determines a corner of opening of a butterfly valve (copes the driver from a gas pedal) and as appropriate corrects supply of fuel to inlet ports of chambers of combustion. Failure of the sensor, or weakening of its fastening leads to interruptions of injection and violations of stability of turns of idling.

The sensor of absolute pressure in the pipeline (MAR)

The sensor supervises variations of depth of depression in the inlet pipeline, connected with changes of turns of a cranked shaft and load of the engine and will transform received information to a peak signal. ECM uses information delivered by MAR and IAT sensors at thin corrections of supply of fuel.

Sensor of atmospheric pressure (BARO)

The sensor develops the peak signal proportional to changes of atmospheric pressure which is used by ECM at determination of duration of the moments of injection of fuel. The sensor is built in the ECM module and to service in an individual order is not subject.

Sensor of a detonation (KS)

The sensor reacts to change of level of the vibrations connected with detonations in the engine. On the basis of information of ECM arriving from the sensor carries out the corresponding correction of a corner of an advancing of ignition.

Sensor of speed of movement of the car (VSS)

As appears from its name, the sensor informs the processor on the current speed of movement of the car.

Sensor of size of opening of the EGR valve

The sensor notifies ECM on size of shift of a plunzher of the EGR valve. Received information is used then the processor at management of functioning of system of a retsirkulyatsiya of the fulfilled gases.

The pressure sensor in a fuel tank

The sensor is a component of system of catching of fuel evaporations (EVAP) and serves for pressure tracking паров gasoline in a tank. On the basis of information of ECM arriving from the sensor gives out commands for operation of electromagnetic valves of a purge of system.

Sensor switch of pressure of system of hydrostrengthening of a wheel (PSP)

On the basis of information of ECM arriving from the PSP sensor switch provides increase of turns of idling at the expense of operation of the sensor of system of stabilization of turns of idling (IAC) for the purpose of compensation of increasing loads of the engine, connected with functioning of the steering hydraulic booster at commission of maneuvers.

Transmission sensors

In addition to the data arriving from VSS, ECM receives also information from sensors placed in a transmission, or connected to it. Number of such sensors treat:

  • sensor of turns of a secondary (radical) shaft
  • sensor of turns of an intermediate shaft.

Sensor switch of management of turning on of the coupling of coupling of the conditioner of air

When giving food from the battery to the electromagnetic valve of the To/in compressor the corresponding information signal arrives on ECM which regards it as the certificate of increase of load of the engine and as appropriate corrects turns of its idling.

Actuation mechanisms

Relay of the fuel pump

ECM makes activation of the relay of the fuel pump at an ignition key povorachivaniye in the situation START or RUN. At ignition inclusion activation of the relay provides pressure lifting in a power supply system. More detailed information on the main relay is provided in Head of the Power supply system and release.

Injector (ы) fuels

ECM provides individual inclusion of each of injectors according to an ignition established order. Besides, the module supervises duration of opening of the injectors, defined in the width of an operating impulse measured in milliseconds and defining amount of fuel injected into the cylinder. More detailed information on a principle of functioning of system of injection, replacement and service of injectors is provided in Head of the Power supply system and release.

Module of management of ignition (ICM)

The module operates functioning of the coil of ignition, defining a demanded base advancing on the basis of developed ECM teams.

Valve of stabilization of turns of idling (IAC)

The IAC valve carries out a dosage of amount of the air which is restarted up bypassing a butterfly valve when the last is closed, or occupies the provision of idling. Opening of the valve and formation of a rezultiruyushchy air stream ECM operates.

Electromagnetic valve of a purge of a coal adsorber

The valve is a component of system of catching of fuel evaporations (EVAP) and, working at the command of ECM, carries out release accumulated in an adsorber паров fuels in the inlet pipeline for the purpose of burning them in the course of normal functioning of the engine.

Electromagnet of management of a purge of a coal adsorber

The electromagnet is used by ECM at check by OBD-II system of serviceability of functioning of EVAP system.

Reading of codes of malfunctions and cleaning of memory of the processor

At detection of the malfunction repeating in a row in spirit trips, ECM gives out command for inclusion of the control lamp built in in an instrument guard «Check the engine», called also the indicator of refusals (MIL). At the same time the monitor is switched to emergency operation. The lamp will continue to burn until memory of system of self-diagnostics will not be cleared of the codes of the revealed malfunctions brought in it (see below).

Reading of codes by means of the scanner

Reading of codes of malfunctions is made by connection of the special input reader (see above) to the 16-contact diagnostic DLC socket (see illustrations the Diagnostic DLC socket is located in the central console ahead of the lever of the parking brake under a decorative cover , Location of the DLC socket in consoles and the Diagnostic socket of OBD II system, - at connection use a standard cable of OBD-II J1962), - act according to indications of the menu of the device. The list of codes is provided in Specifications.

Reading of codes by means of a control lamp of refusals of MIL

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

  1. Muffle the engine and switch off ignition. Open a decorative cover of the central console ahead of the lever of the parking brake (see illustrations the Diagnostic DLC socket is located in the central console ahead of the lever of the parking brake under a decorative cover and Location of the DLC socket in the console) and close on weight the plug 6 (or 5) the 16-contact diagnostic DLC socket, - act extremely carefully, try not to bend plugs. It is necessary to remember that bad contacts in terminal connections can be at the bottom of failure of the module of management, or to violation of serviceability of functioning of memory of the processor.
  1. Include ignition. Reading written down in memory of the module of management of diagnostic codes is made on the gleams which are given out by a control lamp of refusals of MIL/«Check the engine» on a control panel of the car (see. Head Operation manual).
  2. The code of each malfunction consists of four groups of gleams (categories). The number of flashes in group corresponds to value of the category of a code. The short pause separates code categories, the long pause serves for division of codes. The highlighting of each code is made in a row three times. Codes stand out in sequence of increase of numbers. To zero there correspond 10 flashes of a control lamp.
  3. The highlighted code allows to define only the system chain which refusal was fixed by self-diagnostics system. So, if the code indicates malfunction of the sensor of temperature of cooling liquid (ECT), the probability of violation of functioning actually the management module is not excluded also. To establish truth it is possible or sensor replacement, or by carrying out the corresponding control measurements.
  4. At chain check, first of all, disconnect the corresponding electroconducting and check a condition of its contact connections of connection. In case of need smooth out plugs, having completely removed from them oxidation traces.
  5. Check reliability of fastening of a cable at a cable tip.
  6. Check resistance of a suspected element, - if nominal resistance of an element is insignificant, it is necessary to take into consideration such factors, as accuracy and internal resistance of the measuring device.
  7. Check integrity of the wires going to the module of management (be in case of need verified with schemes of electric connections – see. Head Onboard electric equipment).

When reading the codes indicating excessive understating of level of a signal, first of all, it is necessary to make sure of reliability of grounding of the corresponding component. Overestimate of level of a signal appears connected with electroconducting break more often.

Information contents of categories of a 5-digit code of a type of P0380

Categories of a code of a type of R 0 3 8 0 have the following value (from left to right):

1 category (at the left)

Code source

P

power unit

B

body

With

chassis

2 category

Code source

0

standard SAE

1

the expanded - set by the producer

3 category

System

0

system as a whole

1

podmeshivaniye of air (air/fuel induction)

2

fuel injection

3

system of ignition or ignition admissions

4

additional control of release (auxillary emission control)

5

speed of the car and management of idling

6

entrance and target signals of the control unit

7

transmission

4,5 categories

Serial number of malfunction of a component or chain (00-99)

Cleaning of memory of OBD II

For cleaning of memory of ESM switch off ignition, take a crossing point earthing the plug of the DLC socket, and disconnect the battery plug not less than for 60 seconds, or connect to system the scanner and choose in its menu the CLEARING CODES function (Removal of codes), - further follow instructions highlighted on the device.

Cleaning of memory of OBD by a detachment of a negative wire from the battery, is interfaced to removal of adjusting parameters of the engine and violation of stability of its turns for short time after primary start, and also with deleting of settings of hours and a radio receiver.


If the stereosystem established on the car is equipped with a security code before disconnecting the battery make sure that have the correct combination for audiosystem input in action!


In order to avoid ESM damage its shutdown and connection should be made only at the switched-off ignition!

The code written down in memory is removed automatically if the corresponding malfunction does not appear during 20 following in a row one after another engine starts (quantity of turns should be not lower 450 in a minute).

Track, that memory of system was cleared before installation on the engine of new components of systems of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases. If before system start after replacement of the failed information sensor not to make cleaning of memory of refusals, ECM will bring in it a new code of malfunction. Cleaning of memory allows the processor to make change-over on new parameters. Thus the first 15-20 minutes after primary start of the engine before the completion of adaptation of ECM, some violation of stability of its turns can take place.