Opel Astra, Zafira
since 1998 of release
Repair and car operation
+ Opel Astra and Zafira Cars
+ Operation manual
+ Routine maintenance
+ Systems of cooling, heating
+ Power supply system and release
- Engine electric equipment
- Electronic control system of ignition (and injection) petrol engines
Checks of serviceability of functioning of system of ignition
Diagnostics of malfunctions - the general information and preliminary checks
System of onboard self-diagnostics of OBD - the general information
Oscillograph application for supervision of workers of a control system
Removal and installation of the module of ignition
Check and installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition
Removal and installation of the switch of ignition
Removal and installation of the sensor of emergency pressure of oil
Removal and installation of the sensor of level of impellent oil
Removal and installation of the sensor of temperature of impellent oil (diesel models)
+ Systems of preheat and heating of fuel of the diesel engine
+ charge and start Systems
+ Manual transmission
+ Automatic transmission
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Onboard electric equipment
Electronic control system of ignition (and injection) petrol engines
General information, description of principles of functioning and precautionary measure
The system of ignition of the petrol engine is integrated with system of injection of fuel and copes the uniform block of electronic control of ECM (see. Head of the Power supply system and release). The system of ignition consists of the module of engine management (ECM), the switch of ignition, the module of ignition (ICM) with the built-in coils, spark plugs, high-voltage wires and a set of information sensors.
On all models considered in the real Management the system of ignition of direct type (without the distributor) is used.
On engines of 1.6 l of SOHC and 2.0 l the DOHC module of ignition consists of the coil of ignition and is equipped with four conclusions. Actually, in the module монтированы two separate coils of ignition, each of which on arriving with ECM teams carries out giving of VV of tension at the same time on two spark plugs (1 and 4, 2 and 3). Ignition is organized by a principle of «a single spark», that is each candle gives out a spark twice for a running cycle of the piston - at the end of a step of compression and at the end of a final step. As on a final step the mix in the chamber of combustion does not move, no ignition in it occurs, despite an iskroobrazovaniye, from where a principle and received the name.
On engines 1.4, 1.6 and 1.8 of l of DOHC four coils are switched on in the module of ignition, - on one on the cylinder. Coils are placed in the general case established over spark plugs. The design of the module excludes need of application of high-voltage wires as coils are connected directly to spark plugs. ECM, on the basis of the analysis of data arriving from information sensors, according to the program of the built-in processor, gives out the operating electric impulses which configuration unequivocally defines the ignition moment on the ignition module.
The corner of an advancing of ignition is established and corrected by the management module.
ECM gives out operating tension on primary windings of coils of ignition, inducing in them a magnetic field. Tension giving periodically interrupts that leads to disappearance of a field and, as a result, - to production of VV of tension in a secondary winding. High-voltage tension moves to spark plugs. The interelectrode gap of spark plugs is exposed so that when giving on a tension candle between electrodes there was "breakdown" which was accompanied by an iskroobrazovaniye. The spark resulting "breakdown", provides ignition of an air and fuel mix. The moment of giving of an impulse on a candle is calculated by the management module on the basis of the analysis of data arriving from information sensors about the current turns of the engine, the provision of cranked and distributive shaft, number of combustion of air submitted to chambers and so forth. Besides listed, to the factors influencing functioning of system of ignition, the provision of a butterfly valve, temperature of the engine and a mix detonation belong. For delivery of necessary data the module of management is answered by the corresponding information sensors. Information arriving from sensors, is used not only at definition of exact time of giving of VV of impulses on spark plugs, but also at implementation of working corrections of quality of a mix. The description of procedures of removal and installation of sensors is provided in Head of the Power supply system and release.
Turns of the engine and the provision of a cranked shaft are defined by the management module on the basis of the analysis of information arriving from the sensor of provision of a cranked shaft (CKP). The inductive head of the sensor is located near a gear rotor on a flywheel. When passing tooth by a head the sensor gives out a tension impulse on ECM. One tooth on a flywheel is absent, its situation corresponds to situation 90 ° before VMT of the piston of the first cylinder. During this moment the sensor gives the admission allowing the module to trace provision of a cranked shaft. The sensor of provision of a camshaft (CMP) informs the control unit on what of pistons is in the end of a step of compression.
Information on load of the engine arrives on ECM from a measuring instrument of weight of air (MAF sensor) and the sensor of provision of a butterfly valve (TPS). Level of loading is determined by amount of air soaked up in the engine, and is corrected on the basis of information arriving from the sensor of a detonation (KS). The sensor of a detonation is established on the block of cylinders and informs ECM about arising with loading increase premature detonation ignition of a mix in cylinders. The sensor distinguishes the moment of the beginning of a detonation on the increase of a vibrating background caused by knock in cylinders. When receiving from the sensor of information on emergence of a detonation of an air and fuel mix of ECM, carries out a delay of an operating impulse of ignition, reducing an advancing till the detonation termination.
Sensors of temperature of the engine, the provision of a butterfly valve, speed of movement of the car, position of the selector of automatic transmission and activation of the conditioner of air (depending on a complete set) hand over ECM additional information on current state of the corresponding knots and car units. On the basis of the analysis of continuously changing entrance information, the module of management carries out correction of a corner of an advancing of ignition, the moment of injection and quality of an air and fuel mix.
At failures in development of signals any of ECM sensors it is switched in emergency operation of functioning and starts to be guided being stored in memory of the processor by the base installations, allowing to drive away the car under the own steam to a parking lot or on car repair shop. Efficiency of return of the engine can decrease considerably thus at the expense of the termination of continuous adjustment of working parameters, and fuel consumption, on the contrary, - to increase. The system of onboard self-diagnostics at detection of refusals of functioning of system brings in memory of the module the corresponding code of malfunction (see. Head engine Electric equipment).
It is necessary to remember that complete diagnostics of a control system by the engine can be executed only with use of the special diagnostic equipment, allowing to read out brought in memory of the processor codes of refusals. The analysis of only a few information allows to reveal quickly a source of refusal and to eliminate the reason of its emergence.
In order to avoid damage of components of system of ignition, and also for the purpose of decrease in risk of receiving traumas, observe the following precautionary measures.