Opel Astra, Zafira

since 1998 of release

Repair and car operation



Opel Astra
+ Opel Astra and Zafira Cars
+ Operation manual
+ Routine maintenance
+ Engine
+ Systems of cooling, heating
- Power supply system and release
   + Power supply system
   + System of injection of fuel of petrol engines
   + Systems of injection and turbo-supercharging of the diesel engine
   - Systems of release and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases
      System of production of the fulfilled gases - the general information, removal and installation
      Systems of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases - the general information
      Check of serviceability of functioning and replacement of components of systems of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases
+ engine Electric equipment
+ Manual transmission
+ Automatic transmission
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Body
+ Onboard electric equipment




Systems of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases - the general information

Petrol models

For the purpose of decrease in level of issue in the atmosphere of the toxic components getting to composition of fulfilled gases of the engine as a result of evaporation and incompleteness of combustion of fuel, and also for maintenance of efficiency of return of the engine and the decrease in fuel consumption considered in the real Management petrol models are equipped with a number of special systems which could be united under the general name of control systems of the engine and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases.

To number of the systems concerning management of operation of the engine and control of toxicity of fulfilled gases, it is necessary to carry the following:

  • System of onboard diagnostics (OBD), - see. Head engine Electric equipment;
  • Electronic control system of the engine - see. Head engine Electric equipment;
  • System of operated ventilation of a case (PCV);
  • System of a retsirkulyatsiya of the fulfilled gases (EGR);
  • System of catching of fuel evaporations (EVAP);
  • The catalytic converter and lambda probe (control of composition of the fulfilled gases).

Functioning of all listed systems, anyway, directly or indirectly, is connected with management of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases.

In the Sections provided below the general descriptions of principles of functioning of each of systems are given, and also procedures of diagnostic checks and regenerative repair (if that is obviously possible) components of the systems which performance lies within qualification of the average amateur mechanic are stated.

Before coming to conclusion about refusal any of systems of decrease in toxicity, attentively check serviceability of functioning of power supply systems and ignition (see. Heads of the Power supply system and release and engine Electric equipment). Diagnostics of systems of decrease in toxicity some of knots demands use special, difficult in application, the equipment and a certain qualification of the performer, and therefore, it will be reasonable to charge its performance to professional mechanics of specialized car repair shop.

Told does not mean above that service and repair of components of systems of decrease in toxicity in practice are represented exigeant. Do not forget that one of the most widespread causes of failures is elementary violation of quality of vacuum or electric connections, and therefore, first of all always it is necessary to check a condition of shtutserny and electric sockets. The owner of the car can independently and it is rather simple to make a number of checks, and also, to execute in house conditions a set of procedures of routine maintenance of the majority of components of systems, using thus a usual set of the adjusting and metalwork tool.

Do not forget about additional federal guarantee certificates under which components of systems of decrease in toxicity and management of operation of the engine get. Before starting performance of any procedures on repair of knots and details of data of systems, consult about conditions of observance of these obligations in representation office of the Opel company.

Try to observe everything the measures of precautions stipulated in below-mentioned Sections at performance of service of electronic components of considered systems. It is necessary to notice that the illustrative material can correspond not always in accuracy to real placement of components on the car. Such discrepancies are connected with continuously occurring process of updating within a standard design of each model.

In an impellent compartment of the car information label of systems of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases (VECI) is fixed. On a label necessary information on settings and checks of under control systems taking into account all updatings made on the concrete car, and also the scheme of laying of vacuum hoses with identification of various components contains. Before starting service of systems of decrease in toxicity and management of operation of the engine, attentively familiarize with VECI data.

System of ventilation of a case (PCV)

The PCV system serves for decrease in issue in the atmosphere of hydrocarbonic connections at the expense of a conclusion from the engine of karterny gases. The purge of the block is carried out by pro-race of fresh air arriving from an air purifier through a case in which it mixes up with the collected evaporations and broken of chambers of combustion by gases and deduced via the PCV valve in the inlet pipeline.

The PCV valve, the filter of a purge and set of the vacuum hoses connecting listed devices to the engine belong to number of the main components of system.

For the purpose of maintenance of stability of turns of idling the PCV valve blocks a purge stream at deep depression in the inlet pipeline. In case of violation of serviceability of functioning of the engine (as, for example, at wear process of piston rings) the system makes branch of excess of karterny gases through a ventilating tube back in an air purifier.

Control of composition of the fulfilled gases

For the purpose of issue minimization the catalytic converter is switched on in the atmosphere of toxic components about structure of system of production of the fulfilled gases. Control is carried out by a control system of the closed type. Feedback with ECM is organized by means built in in a reception pipe of system of release a lambda probe.

The catalytic converter is a component of systems of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases, is included in structure of system of release and serves for decrease in issue in the atmosphere of toxic components. On cars considered in the real Management catalytic converters of two types are used. The ordinary oxidizing converter allows to lower the content in the fulfilled gases of hydrocarbons and carbon monooxide. The three-functional catalytic converter in addition allows to reduce issue of oxides of nitrogen (NO x).

The lambda probe (the oxygen sensor) traces the content of oxygen in a stream of the fulfilled gases. At contact of molecules About 2 with a sensitive element of a probe the sensor develops a peak signal in a range from 0.1 to 0.9 In, depending on concentration of oxygen. And, to value 0.1 In there corresponds the high contents About 2 (the grown poor mix), and to value 0.9 In - low (the enriched mix). ECM continuously supervises signals arriving with a lambda probe, in case of need giving out commands for correction of structure of an air and fuel mix at the expense of change of duration of opening of injectors of injection. The optimum ratio of components of the gas mixture, guaranteeing the minimum fuel consumption at the most effective functioning of the catalytic converter, makes 14.7 parts of air on 1 part of fuel, - its module of management and tries to support constantly, being guided by information arriving with a lambda probe. On considered models of cars are used two lambda probe; the primary is located in a final collector of the engine, and secondary - below the catalytic converter. By comparison of level of the content of oxygen on sites of a final path is higher and below the catalytic ECM converter defines also efficiency of functioning of the last.

It should be noted that a lambda probe it is capable to develop alarm tension only being heated-up to normal working temperature (near 320°С). While the sensor is in a cold condition, ECM works in a mode of the OPENED CONTOUR.

In case of violation of serviceability of functioning the lambda probe or its chains of ECM passes to emergency operation (a mode of the opened contour), ignoring information arriving from sensors and supporting structure of an air and fuel mix at some set level providing sufficient efficiency of return of the engine.

Serviceability of functioning a lambda probe depends on performance of set of some certain conditions:

  • Electric parameters: Stability of a peak signal of a low voltage developed by the sensor in big degree depends on quality of contact connections of a chain a lambda probe which should be checked first of all in case of problems;
  • Supply of external air: The design a lambda probe provides free circulation of external air in the sensor. At probe installation always check passableness of air channels;
  • Working temperature: ECM starts to react to information arriving from a lambda probe only after the sensor will be heated-up to normal working temperature (near 320°С). It is necessary not to lose sight of this fact at check of serviceability of functioning of a probe;
  • Quality of fuel: Serviceable functioning a lambda probe becomes possible only under condition of application for filling of the car of UNLEADED fuel!

System of catching of fuel evaporations (EVAP)

The system accumulates accumulating in a power supply system during car parking fuel evaporations and provides a conclusion them in the inlet pipeline for burning in the course of normal functioning of the engine.

The structure of any EVAP system surely includes the special adsorber filled with absorbent carbon which, actually, and collects in itself fuel evaporations. The way of a conclusion of evaporations from an adsorber can vary depending on a design of concrete system. The description provided below will allow the reader to understand principles of functioning of EVAP system of any type rather in details.

The described design not necessarily should correspond completely to a design of the system established on the concrete car, however the principle of functioning is the general for all models equipped with system of injection of fuel. In case of identification of any deviations, be verified with information provided on a label of VECI, fixed under a cowl.

The cover of a jellied mouth of a fuel tank is equipped with a bilateral safety valve. In default systems the valve provides branch of fuel evaporations in the atmosphere.

Other locking valve (ORVR valve) is established near a fuel tank and provides adjustment of branch of fuel evaporations in a coal adsorber depending on the differences of pressure/depression connected with change of temperature.

On the way to a coal adsorber fuel evaporations are passed via the double-thread valve and on ventilating hoses get to the coal adsorber established in an impellent compartment where accumulate during the whole time of parking.

At engine start till its warming up to a certain temperature the locking electromagnetic valve of a purge of an adsorber remains closed, allowing opening of the diafragmenny valve of a purge at the expense of increase in depth of depression in the inlet pipeline. From an adsorber fuel evaporations via the diafragmenny valve are blown in the inlet pipeline, from where arrive in combustion chambers where are burned out in the course of normal functioning of the engine.

The fuel tank is also usually equipped with the sensor tracing changes of pressure in a tank as during parking, and under way the car.

System of a retsirkulyatsiya of the fulfilled gases (EGR)

For the purpose of decrease in issue in the atmosphere of oxides of nitrogen the design of the engine provides branch of a part of the fulfilled gases in the inlet pipeline via the EGR valve. Such podmeshivaniye of the fulfilled gases to an air and fuel mix leads to decrease in temperature of its combustion.

The system consists of the EGR valve, the sensor of extent of opening of the EGR valve, the module of management (ECM) and a set of auxiliary information sensors. ECM is programmed so that to provide optimum extent of opening of the EGR valve for any operating conditions of the engine. The special information sensor constantly traces extent of opening of the EGR valve, giving out the corresponding signals on the management module. ECM compares entering information of the sensor to the optimum settlement size determined by data, arriving from other information sensors and, in case of need, makes demanded adjustment of volume of the fulfilled gases arriving in the engine.

On models 1.4, 1.6 and 1.8 of l the electric EGR valve established on the inlet pipeline, or at the left on a head of cylinders is used. On engines of 2.0 l the electromagnetic klapanny EGR hub placed on a head of cylinders is used.

Diesel models

On diesel models the general control of composition of the fulfilled gases carries out also the module of engine management (ECM). A main same objective, as on petrol models, - obtaining maximum efficiency of return of the engine at the minimum expenses in a combination from emission minimization in the atmosphere of toxic components of products of combustion.

The solution of an objective is carried out by three main systems: system of ventilation of a case (PCV), system of a retsirkulyatsiya of the fulfilled gases (EGR) and the catalytic converter.

System of operated ventilation of a case (PCV)

The principle of functioning of PCV system is completely similar described above for petrol engines.

Control of composition of the fulfilled gases

The main element of the monitoring system is the catalytic converter providing additional oxidation of monooxide of carbon (WITH), - see above.

System of a retsirkulyatsiya of the fulfilled gases (EGR)

The principle of functioning of EGR system is similar described above for petrol engines. The vacuum EGR valve is established in the top part of the inlet pipeline and works on the ECM teams which are given out on an electromagnet of management.