Opel Astra, Zafira
since 1998 of release
Repair and car operation
+ Opel Astra and Zafira Cars
+ Operation manual
+ Routine maintenance
+ Systems of cooling, heating
- Power supply system and release
+ Power supply system
+ System of injection of fuel of petrol engines
- Systems of injection and turbo-supercharging of the diesel engine
Check and adjustment of the maximum turns of the engine
Check and adjustment of installations of the moments of injection of fuel
Removal and installation of electric components of a power supply system
Signals and tension on conclusions of the module of management
Removal and TNVD installation
Removal and installation of fuel nozzles
Removal and turbokompressor installation
Removal and installation of an intermediate cooler (interkuler)
Removal and installation of the inlet pipeline
Removal and installation of a final collector
+ Systems of release and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases
+ engine Electric equipment
+ Manual transmission
+ Automatic transmission
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Onboard electric equipment
Systems of injection and turbo-supercharging of the diesel engine
At operation of the diesel engine in its cylinders clean air which is compressed to a high pressure is soaked up. Thus air temperature rises to 700 - 900°С that exceeds temperature of ignition of diesel fuel. Fuel is injected into the cylinder with some advancing and ignites. Thus, spark plugs for ignition of fuel are not used.
Fuel is sucked in by the fuel pump of a high pressure (TNVD) directly from a tank. In TNVD fuel is compressed to pressure necessary for injection. Injection is carried out as it should be, similar to an ignition order in the petrol engine.
When approaching a stock of fuel by the end, - on the dashboard the alarm lamp lights up, - it is necessary to make car filling immediately.
For the purpose of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases the standard complete set of all diesel models turns on the catalytic converter. At the same time the system of a retsirkulyatsiya provides essential decrease in the content in the fulfilled gases of oxides of nitrogen, the part of the fulfilled gases is mixed to air soaked up in the engine that provides decrease in concentration in it of oxygen and, respectively, to reduction of a delay of ignition and fall of temperature of combustion. Result of all listed processes is education minimization in products of combustion of oxides of nitrogen (NOH). Process of a retsirkulyatsiya of the fulfilled gases demands an exact dosage, level of the contents otherwise increases in products of combustion of coal particles (soot). The dosage is carried out at the expense of inclusion in a chain of system of a special measuring instrument, - information arriving from a measuring instrument allows the electronic module to operate retsirkulyatsiya process.
On engines of 1.7 l of SOHC injection of fuel is made in forkamer of cylinders, on engines of 1.7 l of DOHC and 2.0 l - are direct in combustion chambers.
TNVD has electronic control that guarantees compliance to rigid modern requirements for the content in the fulfilled gases of the engine of toxic components. A brain of a control system is the electronic module built in pump assembly which is continuously analyzing data, arriving from the whole complex of information sensors:
Engines of 1.7 l of SOHC
Engines of 1.7 l of DOHC and 2.0 l
All data arriving from information sensors are processed by the electronic control units exercising on the basis of its analysis administration of the moments and number of injection of fuel, providing optimum operational characteristics of the power unit regardless of change of external factors. The ECM engine operates the injection moment via the TNVD control unit, providing reliability of start of the engine at any temperature of the air, the fastest its warming up, and also the maximum return in all modes of movement, including acceleration and braking by the engine.
Base installation of the moments of injection is made at TNVD installation on the engine. In the course of functioning of the unit of change of this characteristic occurs automatically on the ECM teams by means of the kulachkovy executive mechanism.
The dosage of fuel submitted to the engine is made by means of the valves of quantity built in TNVD and the injection moment. Operation of valves occurs on the teams which are given out by the TNVD control unit, usually located in the top part of the pump. On the main rotor of TNVD the special ring is established. The sensor of provision of a rotor defines situation and speed of rotation of a rotor. The sensor works by a principle similar to a principle of operation of the sensor of provision of a cranked shaft. Four labels are put on a rotor - according to number of cylinders. The control unit the pump receives necessary information from the control unit the engine (ECM) and counts the moments and duration of supply of fuel. The TNVD internal components allow to count very precisely these parameters that finally leads to increase of efficiency of return of the engine and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases.
On diesel models is absent a gas cable, - its functions are carried out by the sensor of provision of a pedal of an accelerator. The sensor continuously informs the control unit on the provision of a pedal that allows ECM to count injection parameters precisely. Idling turns also are regulated by the control unit and to manual adjustment are not subject. Analyzing information arriving from various sensors, the control unit counts quantity of turns, correcting them depending on loading and engine temperature.
The pump incorporates to nozzles metal tubes. Each nozzle submits fuel to combustion chambers through five openings. It reaches uniform distribution of fuel in the chamber of combustion and the exact direction of supply of fuel. The system of injection of fuel is system of direct injection. In the bottoms of pistons there are the vortical chambers providing a turbulence of combustion arriving in chambers of fuel. For optimization of combustion of fuel of a nozzle open in two stages (for this purpose in each nozzle there are two springs). When opening nozzle the small part of fuel gets on internal components of a nozzle, greasing them, and comes back to a fuel tank.
Management of warming up of the cold engine is carried out by the control unit the engine and the TNVD control unit. At the cold engine the moment of injection is displaced by the TNVD control unit. The control unit the engine, in turn, operates work of candles of an incandescence. Glow plugs are established in each cylinder and join before engine start, working during an engine provorachivaniye with a starter and some time after engine start. Candles considerably facilitate start of the cold engine. After ignition inclusion on a control panel the control lamp (lights up see. Head the Operation manual), signaling about inclusion of candles of an incandescence. As soon as the lamp will go out, it is possible to start implementation of start of the engine. At very cold weather of a candle continue to work still some time after engine start, providing stability of functioning of the last and decrease in level of the maintenance of toxic components in the fulfilled gases.
Owing to high starting qualities need for preliminary heat on models with direct injection of fuel is required only at temperature below - 10°С.
If from sensors information testifying to emergence of an emergency situation arrives, ECM is switched in emergency operation of functioning when instead of inadequate signals base values of the corresponding parameters are substituted, - efficiency of return of the engine in such mode, naturally decreases. About ECM entrance in emergency operation of the driver prevents operation of a control lamp of refusals on an instrument guard of the car (see. Head the Operation manual), in memory of the processor is thus brought the corresponding diagnostic code (see. Head engine Electric equipment).
At operation of a control lamp the car should be driven away at the first possibility on firm car repair shop Opel for carrying out detailed diagnostics with use of the special equipment and performance of necessary regenerative repair.